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March 22, 2004
Frank Discussions: John Derbyshire
Posted by Frank J. at 07:05 AM | View blog reactions | Comments (55)

When deciding who should be my second interview, the choice was obvious. John Derbyshire is a columnist, author, mathematician, uncredited thug, general curmudgeon, and one writer at National Review I wouldn't try and replace. He's decidedly as non-PC as they get, and often sports controversy because of it (he once put up a math problem about monkeys and it scared me). If you haven't been reading him, then catch up. Until then, read this interview Mr. Derbyshire graciously did over e-mail.

Q. Your name Derbyshire comes from a county in England. Being that it's a combination of "derby" and "shire", one would guess that the place is filled with hobbits driving around in racecars. Is that about right?


Artist rendition of the happenings in the county of Derbyshire.

A. Dunno. I was only in Derbyshire once, and the memory is dim. If the coin had come up the other way you'd be betting on the Kentucky Bunbury--did you know that?

Q. So what's it like writing for National Review? Is it fun fun fun everyday, or is it your own private hell that you suffer with dignity and grace?

A. A laff riot, except for those times they call you up and say: "Can you give us 1,000 words on energy policy by 4 o'clock?" That's when you try desperately to forget the combination code for the handgun safe.

Q. You seem to court controversy a lot more than other writers at National Review (one of the quotes for your merchandise is about how you have some opinions that aren't "respectable"). Is that because you're more daring or because everyone else is a pansy?

A. I think mostly it's just that I'm older http://www.olimu.com/Photographs/BackPages/1945-Baby.htm . Grew up in the age before PC. Never internalized the necessary restraints. The NR people have only recently weaned me off saying "Negro."

Q. You bill yourself as a pessimist. Has there been anything in recent events that have made you feel cheery?

A. Well, I cracked a smile when they found Saddam in that spider hole. Though if it'd been me that found him, I'd have lobbed a few grenades down there & then sealed it up with concrete. Or just sealed it up & saved the grenades. The last time I had a really good laugh at a public occurrence was when the Romanians shot Ceaucescu and his loathsome wife. I am smiling now just thinking of it.

Q. How much longer do you think humanity will last?

A. You misunderstand the nature of my pessimism. Humanity will always be around -- like roaches.

Q. How do you think Bush is doing as president?

A. All right. But I speak as a person who has very low expectations of politicians.

Q. How much worse do you think Kerry would do?

A. Very, very much. He'd be another Carter, spend four years apologizing to the world for our appalling inclination to defend our own interests & way of life. Unthinkable. Vote Bush!

Q. Out of all the politicians and pundits out there, who you would you most want to slug if you could get away with it?

A. Eleanor Clift. There's just something about that woman. I know, I know, a gentleman isn't supposed to hit a lady. But heck, they wanted equality, they got it. Come and take your lumps, Eleanor.

Q. Andrew Sullivan seems to not like you, handing out Derbyshire Award Nominations in mockery of you. Any idea how that started? Like, did you run over his dog?

A. My private theory is that he is trying to make himself sexually attractive to me in some way I don't really understand. I have had trouble with homosexuals all my life, I don't know why. They can be very persistent.

Q. When he's finished handing out Derbyshire Award Nominations, will you be at the award ceremony to present the Derbyshire Award?

A. I don't think so. I'd get flustered, having his eyes on me all the time.

Q. I heard that you got Andrew Sullivan fired from the NY Times by spreading rumors that he is gay. Is there any truth to what I just made up?

A. You seem to have some kind of obsession with Andrew Sullivan. Why is that?

Q. It's now well known that you were an uncredited thug in a Bruce Lee movie. What exactly does a thug have to do to get credit?

A. See?---Sullivan, Sullivan, Sullivan. I really think you have issues here.

Q. Now that your fans made sure the Internet Movie Database credits you for your uncredited thuggery, do you feel vindicated?

A. Say WHAT? Oh, "thuggery." Do you know, I paid $35 to that frigging movie database to get my picture included. They said it would take "about two weeks," but that was three weeks ago and I'm still looking at the generic shadow guy. I guess it's a ripoff. Most things are.

Q. I've heard talk about making a new Bruce Lee movie where he is inserted using CGI. If this happens, would you consider reprising your role as uncredited thug?

A. I would have, but Spielberg wants me in this new Riemann Hypothesis movie he's doing, so I'll have to beg off.

Q. Have you ever been approached by a thug on the street who felt he just wasn't getting enough credit and said how inspirational you are?

A. For God's sake lay off with the Sullivan thing, it's getting creepy.

Q. I have about twenty more questions about uncredited thuggery, but I guess I should move on. How did you get from uncredited thug to credited writer and journalist?

A. Same answer Fats Domino gave when asked how he got successful: "Clean thinkin', clean livin', an' good home cookin'." (You can put the terminal consonants back in if I've transgressed political correctness there. I never know.)

Q. For National Review Online, Jonah Goldberg seems to get a lot of the attention. Do you ever feel like punching him? Be honest.

A. By arrangement with the magazine, three times a year Jonah and I have one of those Russian face-slapping contests on a secluded beach out Nissequogue way -- feet planted, you know, just slap! slap! slap! till one of us falls down -- to get things out of our systems. The rest of the time we get on great. He cooks a mean quiche gaspesienne.

Q. I'll kidnap his dog for a thousand bucks. Deal?

A. In your dreams. I haven't seen a thousand bucks since I got married.

Q. Last year, you published the book Prime Obsession about the Riemann Hypothesis. Now, my readers are a bit too dense for you to explain briefly that hypothesis (and that is what the book is supposed to do, anyway), but could you tell us what your favorite prime number is?

A. That's a thing I can never make up my mind about. Some days I'd say 31 -- you know, the first prime number the decimal period of whose reciprocal is an odd number of digits in length. Also the 3rd Mersenne prime. Also one of only two known numbers that can be written in two ways as the sum of successive powers, starting with 1. (The other is 8191.) Then there's that business about the square being 961, which is the square of 13 (31 written backwards) written backwards. Also the two digits being the same as the first two digits of pi. AND, if you divide the first of those digits into the second to get one-third, and raise 31 to the power of one-third (i.e. take its cube root), you get 3.1413806523913930044930758964627499263, which differs from pi by less that 0.007 per cent!!! **AND** note that 31 is the 11th prime, 11 is the 5th prime, 5 is the 3rd prime, and 3 is the 2nd prime, and 11, 5, 3, and 2 are all primes!!!!!! (The next prime this works for is 127, the 31st prime, which is, like 31, a Mersenne prime!!!!!!!!!) Other days, however, I might say 5,127,402,762,693,207,238,127,
857,636,203,402,218,800,465,862,270,699,268,312,403,841,858,231,274,305,620,
361,077,749,499,092,908,732,125,557,093,200,451,596,185,805,491,533,791,569,
813,459,934,004,301,403,420,963,876,503,051,395,931,102,015,314,923,539,804,
274,582,396,743,992,807,950,474,719,225,956,493,549,755,113,731,084,255,868,
197,796,918,434,581,937,598,237,719,449,693,830,758,295,558,527,988,434,483,
984,402,926,845,375,042,397,676,916,772,484,150,646,410,917,772,519,028,191,
260,065,794,740,179,769,324,698,367,726,983,862,151,189,703,959,842,488,900,
061,272,076,024,459,112,340,878,109,546,457,346,491,554,143,925,842,685,145,
949,023,067,551,546,771,775,954,793,260,432,752,945,481,806,098,802,929,000,
907,427,445,042,956,652,440,017,686,821,739,642,342,283,937,834,042,844,291,
309,099,347,969,102,747,457,019,190,141,964,862,487,369,125,287,232,304,120,
180,671,718,300,574,342,513,576,699,411,857,774,313,395,067,287,653,074,850,
588,324,937,103,408,282,413,195,256,438,383,787,207,278,963,764,217,585,989,
297,652,130,376,043,003,743,753,738,855,745,090,992,464,814,545,996,050,643,
193,581,313,404,735,505,484,589,430,723,093,798,823,359,856,272,522,668,336,
385,259,952,677,756,552,856,551,289,009,892,928,585,351,817,997,597,030,498,
514,888,896,397,853,351,107,117,298,797,441,034,194,477,559,304,372,109,097,
290,724,770,947,530,415,951,652,971,238,902,317,815,917,038,680,603,767,679,
621,050,951,143,780,665,933,783,692,044,966,565,073,528,785,267,030,895,450,
902,209,416,549,087,515,755,497,095,539,312,904,309,522,657,662,573,379,910,
237,333,667,849,079,849,220,423,840,762,884,973,739,500,200,127,298,974,934,
830,066,840,393,158,838,988,914,961,956,695,510,930,546,945,980,827,951,096,
112,962,664,643,335,992,487,280,560,134,900,886,679,764,181,190,584,527,535,
596,309,993,103,344,029,282,425,364,639,953,156,663,544,682,107,454,804,931,
256,238,955,533,113,496,018,816,854,182,195,543,330,531,080,906,323,445,078,
316,250,967,348,939,638,518,364,397,769,154,256,659,856,173,480,003,883,657,
206,670,525,805,339,385,205,102,031,809,817,585,314,840,602,972,682,019,418,
846,238,655,285,164,004,752,145,812,574,629,347,496,147,187,860,255,836,399,
547,712,572,271,763,652,225,900,724,547,782,484,635,289,547,426,451,805,759,
385,599,266,973,889,795,734,232,290,479,220,332,115,891,609,768,156,288,342,
457,935,909,120,914,007,323,909,196,438,381,794,326,456,768,293,490,507,645,
188,049,139,856,490,695,855,921,347,239,667,106,058,599,730,403,070,475,897,
761,777,384,876,428,450,587,345,819,993,007,719,724,539,699,098,055,541,679,
729,873,655,504,576,709,009,905,603,259,030,920,627,958,993,042,266,397,424,
051,597,783,360,050,334,896,922,727,141,271,478,699,045,082,152,228,027,176,
387,242,258,926,795,536,797,468,085,134,528,625,106,976,095,345,191,577,913,
476,371,028,410,646,742,037,674,051,628,455,878,000,216,377,265,397,452,084,
015,240,867,090,868,867,221,753,597,264,076,182,115,949,014,522,094,557,935,
332,115,678,514,099,817,970,329,091,688,526,234,719,385,466,559,494,653,373,
537,899,003,323,166,107,149,478,877,117,006,392,742,932,314,559,290,084,835,
777,094,667,606,029,780,458,934,036,386,976,039,274,781,268,555,844,995,512,
614,964,439,932,924,940,312,848,333,645,844,887,797,516,295,800,024,064,774,
185,402,159,078,978,805,168,601,770,447,303,316,431,713,617,130,234,794,350,
541,866,792,806,893,003,400,689,202,963,176,470,263,352,023,062,089,730,876,
527,043,230,463,014,879,144,521,952,661,217,703,677,799,441,187,657,662,973,
384,737,966,402,581,038,747,961,045,995,695,691,052,348,543,766,640,499,372,
261,445,442,597,160,606,259,053,966,068,732,511,151,005,174,297,931,072,476,
442,070,654,725,728,997,312,468,606,997,496,262,806,957,417,754,746,116,751,
611,888,607,847,520,118,238,695,988,605,632,005,765,040,116,452,483,003,738,
222,108,883,182,645,400,927,748,375,991,851,316,480,041,378,139,797,501,430,
225,910,917,778,283,739,088,610,331,481,527,007,155,171,810,533,856,350,046,
610,519,043,759,763,735,287,608,317,720,758,292,043,647,836,090,336,580,690,
160,570,305,468,673,327,908,088,769,346,820,644,202,222,370,805,567,789,924,
652,533,710,283,013,623,161,521,566,452,434,952,081,959,455,776,793,645,596,
433,449,191,241,875,779,804,568,888,134,130,384,052,737,038,581,482,023,245,
957,727,102,774,269,790,268,483,623,397,849,877,307,665,566,360,077,642,424,
686,431,521,362,331,535,538,625,236,147,207,010,477,726,452,714,608,576,639,
216,929,513,668,408,452,625,607,706,353,883,532,950,870,370,035,801,874,995,
812,813,451,432,008,448,947,266,393,601,762,979,801,361,580,687,909,591,815,
579,389,477,766,834,753,251,940,287,557,801,066,551,722,677,979,963,148,412,
466,936,942,280,873,277,595,719,690,771,325,214,856,788,811,424,035,793,433,
963,398,993,331,031,119,441,383,882,955,389,390,151,657,476,397,193,836,314,
471,258,409,404,667,849,604,708,290,823,276,044,211,968,110,911,567,811,341,
262,080,360,778,790,865,947,551,395,744,817,070,583,824,061,150,098,445,032,
835,197,917,407,298,691,261,013,378,898,653,579,321,522,078,640,368,048,070,
984,501,086,794,395,042,330,782,390,396,751,845,471,525,030,920,057,416,168,
578,236,420,486,622,426,378,767,586,883,883,893,489,433,813,011,353,455,573,
101,221,128,384,406,545,741,394,033,581,094,437,631,769,412,130,294,661,724,
106,175,181,125,398,050,027,695,112,993,430,023,630,323,675,490,992,939,496,
504,744,805,578,635,472,179,788,333,768,200,664,819,607,284,340,917,322,755,
531,869,709,230,020,828,192,538,563,016,722,363,953,568,715,031,024,807,326,
998,142,181,473,135,798,116,619,125,308,672,912,530,256,683,199,051,480,596,
855,619,122,644,251,686,812,232,521,133,402,619,669,222,585,668,465,906,911,
136,832,572,514,562,009,274,392,880,973,584,373,798,361,547,406,479,432,084,
329,403,349,301,000,394,827,230,213,855,184,882,751,071,528,067,261,670,154,
680,072,053,788,815,282,747,410,574,737,453,703,637,563,630,570,435,117,628,
195,978,573,859,441,739,021,314,639,609,194,570,617,468,380,964,312,984,898,
051,015,808,531,249,520,173,981,451,879,164,999,414,743,675,749,804,234,774,
729,611,723,419,052,649,393,703,587,908,248,649,035,483,760,388,377,673,954,
593,219,972,520,460,512,648,135,037,493,641,716,623,026,507,566,948,568,177,
612,501,099,277,675,842,019,773,333,090,894,923,829,100,110,076,309,867,969,
151,081,052,588,982,607,951,865,471,213,313,183,245,060,597,002,272,693,110,
245,785,965,527,572,016,217,588,182,180,611,542,407,587,567,815,731,154,265,
933,832,507,231,884,099,577,591,490,145,058,574,363,430,855,132,369,561,744,
047,149,760,935,326,046,633,080,596,172,554,087,268,798,000,846,691,309,970,
043,155,701,905,733,040,446,549,921,630,716,557,714,857,851,435,295,738,244,
739,711,179,222,259,227,248,795,100,488,126,594,739,221,835,603,749,600,314,
934,633,344,076,353,028,287,578,586,024,598,839,126,822,069,713,101,750,598,
474,670,812,758,693,292,659,161,828,026,166,950,346,748,815,143,463,334,704,
542,176,784,521,435,388,672,817,578,619,278,494,672,228,806,465,126,368,945,
625,182,069,538,753,150,748,681,827,976,974,516,834,491,919,682,447,499,595,
479,376,473,830,053,931,431,014,725,195,530,345,010,374,265,299,332,489,104,
132,410,271,977,780,102,176,440,834,625,446,012,866,665,347,194,485,014,498,
192,213,906,712,461,571,558,461,856,215,544,094,243,315,778,552,512,002,140,
950,670,825,241,426,485,599,659,881,554,353,612,591,403,867,412,422,460,776,
539,555,531,219,070,870,630,305,526,323,467,724,773,070,119,652,811,134,935,
638,289,746,292,798,229,378,856,888,363,134,940,926,708,114,880,619,599,116,
394,578,819,044,020,532,468,981,521,819,176,025,207,014,749,161,838,288,323,
149,490,258,523,875,175,248,280,151,699,750,221,467,024,407,911,729,970,497,
221,734,109,043,858,511,965,549,018,877,943,198,319,459,589,401,737,280,330,
407,518,862,630,051,588,881,613,569,562,108,842,459,004,760,199,605,403,801,
598,397,565,491,823,651,148,326,901,400,520,661,066,194,241,035,982,518,345,
069,096,793,618,981,282,457,558,427,497,482,957,008,675,010,720,183,774,437,
435,785,017,575,700,492,736,626,204,612,419,206,706,507,710,961,635,642,170,
205,274,550,473,597,511,836,675,925,420,381,368,309,015,709,938,935,891,601,
621,321,760,036,916,411,311,681,516,123,297,874,975,915,480,198,703,078,663,
419,458,804,402,864,305,516,787,820,345,985,693,428,927,205,941,604,062,174,
961,545,371,679,212,308,834,552,826,121,715,932,392,540,107,379,577,154,361,
826,818,491,137,529,526,738,049,383,903,575,651,855,103,642,326,413,630,121,
139,155,484,164,888,243,377,500,163,407,233,045,622,466,976,800,124,271,944,
950,319,285,079,471,209,642,615,721,698,927,302,762,004,348,567,984,609,484,
332,582,529,312,222,882,172,855,754,718,970,819,602,949,196,772,520,214,463,
094,595,900,354,649,955,409,789,175,317,792,173,269,967,890,029,142,271,205,
494,449,345,217,873,671,282,295,612,587,729,305,103,999,979,929,743,481,579,
369,070,622,515,827,110,227,043,311,618,627,937,047,489,237,015,082,734,016,
466,143,123,088,742,374,780,178,674,664,214,517,749,524,379,311,269,583,238,
249,276,515,231,135,759,218,285,766,054,677,815,440,082,858,362,452,031,356,
522,322,619,464,971,908,751,741,399,920,517,485,355,931,154,276,760,453,082,
651,439,938,324,557,659,678,759,861,325,499,804,190,722,614,943,694,407,186,
007,001,553,845,676,121,681,900,718,551,500,159,385,916,394,847,105,209,050,
635,766,728,229,026,717,159,686,536,605,911,843,649,165,365,766,883,524,827,
564,881,177,864,241,764,581,029,132,488,129,076,507,527,512,109,503,449,158,
438,453,841,719,282,138,558,162,521,299,327,913,862,781,561,956,545,791,246,
753,034,127,861,941,934,167,249,886,926,595,445,327,450,131,322,517,713,770,
179,490,444,309,917,949,174,257,635,990,272,618,937,449,595,783,818,693,095,
466,417,625,685,161,064,435,326,999,391,106,015,899,511,235,037,207,338,465,
950,393,219,711,649,816,456,256,986,656,953,206,680,202,126,257,859,098,323,
891,799,580,888,242,623,952,863,477,848,461,113,235,288,921,659,445,319,444,
746,539,372,174,714,266,551,926,011,086,784,963,086,727,886,600,049,141,566,
177,960,851,388,542,791,184,157,027,436,634,765,810,258,245,167,882,057,584,
625,826,946,220,598,415,098,031,006,728,731,057,036,482,791,782,676,668,744,
498,636,690,294,917,146,323,352,239,119,119,476,127,803,088,758,287,801,924,
080,759,106,903,028,128,733,032,620,998,436,991,415,227,372,083,907,001,140,
386,625,144,776,473,334,616,537,497,811,627,351,317,161,766,754,152,755,629,
183,578,965,914,057,612,778,898,616,333,253,680,076,989,723,132,963,096,267,
843,619,665,840,738,100,891,818,504,497,613,087,480,563,689,696,696,325,338,
836,257,752,848,769,059,556,895,155,023,387,467,272,471,217,438,559,297,270,
422,443,240,859,193,295,885,964,922,612,907,992,528,516,329,523,860,022,414,
077,126,468,190,350,115,675,704,262,996,712,924,555,738,506,087,065,654,538,
334,187,094,265,197,591,237,263,839,877,125,045,316,352,683,284,056,878,031,
458,951,849,362,713,050,864,416,334,897,199,315,211,131,857,408,980,069,888,
681,660,777,681,538,146,464,853,672,307,318,157,467,335,972,918,696,262,359,
877,612,191,264,299,497,306,856,928,716,507,175,880,622,392,842,467,165,074,
998,385,165,181,483,505,794,499,544,813,906,347,343,204,942,924,289,137,256,
184,514,880,018,273,066,432,726,277,577,180,260,746,800,779,269,938,881,910,
307,323,820,603,929,380,479,529,421,876,015,049,476,691,320,986,699,695,942,
115,897,568,483,208,244,791,979,519,901,240,375,000,591,195,016,765,017,126,
144,548,505,799,030,998,701,713,970,033,915,814,767,773,118,132,358,804,291,
265,033,958,409,755,369,127,853,957,231,962,590,141,743,461,569,536,779,749,
634,235,639,798,353,619,572,450,258,847,759,459,694,846,905,994,477,525,156,
339,273,246,913,346,759,956,744,990,111,496,334,981,805,905,230,802,041,004,
715,927,427,344,647,936,927,755,876,493,290,124,167,078,164,505,345,564,766,
348,558,129,462,609,116,510,782,224,937,228,880,155,892,729,769,415,562,471,
445,769,931,140,855,391,511,378,624,368,263,540,127,686,675,911,547,708,352,
109,818,175,644,039,011,369,749,565,858,372,812,300,689,854,048,247,048,805,
169,051,527,318,082,276,479,596,762,887,555,775,088,256,570,118,179,705,331,
031,761,747,334,969,615,950,377,366,798,311,061,069,015,611,318,792,118,651,
480,632,269,394,796,274,992,601,445,529,601,919,756,015,744,946,861,111,012,
022,886,714,161,161,147,773,931,868,702,869,884,490,852,860,743,828,823,027,
319,235,368,138,865,992,343,266,288,790,246,372,010,312,873,917,433,718,997,
957,513,043,906,163,604,361,465,060,634,386,474,748,537,582,400,730,530,159,
722,940,939,826,048,191,605,429,270,124,336,981,275,770,338,138,973,577,616,
593,971,621,833,582,360,317,980,144,298,665,533,115,957,141,788,600,721,470,
250,658,181,066,937,770,192,408,683,344,698,511,389,924,513,540,955,385,986,
068,357,670,703,852,792,679,139,167,249,304,583,680,796,643,416,358,600,440,
520,072,280,863,038,081,592,154,544,270,747,037,715,498,851,168,475,607,560,
611,138,963,966,888,983,656,284,449,171,233,326,631,216,377,400,660,806,120,
540,386,444,244,638,323,057,376,171,601,637,971,899,649,659,721,093,999,368,
390,685,082,260,546,366,837,300,067,443,401,507,588,760,007,711,224,203,876,
302,325,977,304,818,038,603,718,630,000,255,840,302,557,459,495,179,075,549,
363,582,840,354,987,790,643,328,502,714,368,104,435,259,086,032,784,633,219,
981,950,714,288,365,275,795,169,344,442,417,986,953,571,445,084,667,257,645,
779,903,420,686,950,035,236,373,635,997,797,241,784,433,641,752,393,914,137,
341,953,392,759,771,435,249,910,732,345,729,142,592,917,959,066,205,535,292,
598,448,687,723,249,119,889,046,284,453,689,168,476,265,364,011,033,941,647,
276,971,920,839,364,592,580,134,373,888,421,503,390,706,541,131,854,336,458,
868,715,573,463,168,468,946,708,115,745,948,272,813,055,299,026,592,675,592,
731,439,680,121,153,957,337,008,007,647,968,358,998,074,825,384,885,748,671,
959,019,983,494,738,049,779,807,377,977,051,152,964,806,091,449,794,192,972,
501,083,985,674,996,443,156,468,519,126,946,644,957,077,909,219,434,127,902,
644,367,394,435,341,912,828,719,668,752,255,166,985,852,553,507,368,074,481,
199,419,067,623,767,369,591,212,873,473,594,202,232,044,156,174,331,473,080,
967,941,594,806,472,553,707,555,012,331,113,745,212,709,589,763,955,361,919,
122,882,011,304,686,676,910,655,457,379,868,999,971,589,191,216,488,216,541,
751,852,793,814,911,404,750,535,949,300,187,484,925,837,437,651,804,785,616,
959,019,881,309,984,056,548,806,270,456,116,453,370,405,219,435,372,547,595,
942,601,365,146,441,580,538,057,855,431,620,125,447,486,124,780,099,894,230,
652,448,279,396,782,565,238,739,301,707,121,850,930,983,800,079,628,678,351,
299,301,787,704,456,611,541,537,321,343,947,537,106,101,351,193,195,936,343,
602,930,122,992,360,748,087,753,981,993,233,084,344,411,733,223,639,183,219,
773,778,074,034,559,366,785,608,989,524,181,683,442,408,953,819,324,520,906,
940,637,386,858,403,198,020,701,662,889,681,076,874,975,308,719,004,149,166,
109,223,719,368,525,619,529,510,261,110,807,516,307,297,190,175,845,962,110,
555,630,052,985,302,651,462,511,656,729,849,223,504,148,650,490,706,856,711,
635,074,888,335,701,589,478,377,973,269,819,398,739,998,660,727,569,675,811,
617,042,408,102,778,253,624,533,207,908,630,722,333,533,136,304,860,833,953,
319,141,187,521,024,046,533,785,992,713,775,724,685,202,401,271,073,708,088,
556,714,121,800,183,245,352,292,241,659,738,392,664,307,495,545,997,772,995,
421,658,041,288,321,200,093,552,375,824,141,717,731,884,343,636,997,601,717,
440,017,201,377,429,209,130,214,217,269,181,591,888,763,203,788,884,971,870,
727,424,396,746,714,711,131,361,876,200,606,993,333,760,112,725,521,182,626,
737,279,646,463,631,025,145,546,255,189,465,091,442,357,976,493,837,002,361,
956,919,255,834,452,242,703,305,696,768,456,187,304,448,790,007,617,613,844,
578,849,663,616,871,475,131,850,204,590,577,091,027,335,977,696,875,263,844,
896,997,340,942,208,281,171,440,084,942,987,470,051,070,820,569,697,809,935,
528,409,206,580,581,607,716,209,090,646,554,078,181,617,114,977,629,081,540,
094,839,829,501,444,013,894,578,773,866,686,079,597,383,370,192,985,336,761,
729,608,733,878,631,238,593,635,368,417,417,374,881,263,553,568,889,305,307,
888,189,572,488,525,337,141,762,186,719,515,574,461,226,838,677,147,108,083,
491,660,413,827,052,755,050,586,106,089,116,938,160,069,477,667,723,155,199,
373,925,302,340,373,549,874,172,842,390,854,711,784,841,049,290,196,888,419,
132,584,703,452,626,866,057,692,381,247,929,148,657,227,857,819,802,319,538,
730,633,607,454,535,685,288,705,442,980,644,771,846,584,674,510,901,124,420,
706,904,089,276,343,102,916,739,950,132,888,330,209,491,220,733,889,504,205,
668,830,523,919,420,976,615,490,747,594,150,327,561,032,110,977,923,585,557,
947,297,345,330,773,277,531,184,439,891,775,723,764,406,464,342,485,914,416,
226,166,364,694,249,554,479,287,406,623,303,522,282,581,319,216,588,937,074,
375,846,411,966,905,513,860,037,153,323,322,768,929,484,050,085,524,914,484,
099,663,072,396,144,466,278,534,349,846,122,524,839,944,931,607,623,607,928,
908,867,919,931,011,893,838,000,365,036,674,585,505,157,797,293,416,527,639,
758,415,131,263,874,026,878,221,837,674,217,823,597,295,757,639,756,335,103,
814,510,257,672,715,794,434,384,633,052,687,849,789,385,892,570,677,414,345,
734,175,030,422,842,519,440,702,505,760,307,742,190,422,275,627,347,238,543,
460,900,216,879,636,996,989,556,428,360,118,111,998,085,431,123,774,452,854,
194,395,028,445,348,594,789,007,015,764,392,608,154,412,173,386,561,671,417,
077,425,392,837,274,630,896,454,817,187,748,285,048,389,574,310,730,089,929,
036,737,448,134,777,095,875,585,574,516,422,081,878,258,837,443,867,710,221,
930,271,840,446,455,849,884,515,717,983,251,647,725,876,969,636,912,734,850,
443,435,164,346,055,033,917,516,879,631,881,271,065,620,961,264,741,404,822,
095,026,362,667,332,682,185,875,364,598,125,213,616,764,953,676,101,127,681,
164,288,062,133,420,309,585,789,995,219,186,241,470,797,423,391,634,213,701,
830,108,682,237,186,526,491,146,808,990,228,632,983,011,212,126,242,739,170,
016,294,559,949,113,413,729,541,382,740,831,559,822,863,555,356,273,751,098,
038,633,680,013,128,660,871,853,820,189,342,366,024,553,248,314,451,160,677,
818,203,027,334,549,291,235,216,566,847,593,735,407,141,681,888,075,496,634,
171,117,541,075,264,390,666,154,171,915,183,768,102,309,568,085,715,466,031,
561,760,559,193,169,183,847,770,680,748,160,024,719,617,594,042,164,298,308,
850,480,956,705,556,130,577,080,764,636,389,115,122,851,488,596,840,790,111,
460,370,614,861,106,491,856,731,687,957,173,056,637,121,307,923,137,394,812,
714,467,970,656,785,303,199,480,369,106,290,685,075,964,452,923,238,317,355,
791,932,993,212,169,480,061,725,978,070,236,115,335,240,264,266,619,442,608,
348,761,729,139,966,228,197,947,621,412,458,121,818,261,366,535,187,484,801,
871,758,603,078,959,673,472,550,852,239,251,049,417,056,007,219,534,821,681,
352,241,405,278,386,673,200,132,642,769,954,604,824,753,375,525,332,171,011,
827,229,027,485,291,404,780,578,605,204,091,710,542,469,776,515,619,500,478,
949,781,826,013,371,842,116,881,908,954,391,880,977,808,266,898,271,437,171,
222,799,405,411,220,215,124,006,193,981,134,465,424,386,388,514,479,139,577,
993,094,752,553,950,490,748,505,910,554,576,569,031,891,925,771,090,501,147,
497,594,818,927,053,935,402,002,458,054,741,587,143,409,260,726,965,960,497,
642,217,918,689,714,450,184,025,085,894,395,564,067,691,997,209,773,798,735,
834,130,547,270,880,177,285,121,216,131,841,314,094,971,410,791,315,730,368,
766,539,549,297,867,018,145,889,086,472,470,418,843,802,065,910,159,436,478,
296,208,944,120,024,165,178,018,299,849,011,692,869,626,363,429,989,884,067,
672,619,117,200,954,976,010,545,718,563,777,178,411,908,517,397,923,976,244,
923,144,100,403,219,599,437,704,117,440,463,734,109,281,098,448,912,475,340,
720,340,765,084,931,951,146,971,856,131,734,035,685,753,112,106,983,202,648,
800,746,821,338,642,298,597,351,573,168,341,944,332,049,367,210,957,576,797,
292,230,250,422,788,252,297,593,130,535,812,079,513,511,857,793,706,745,510,
711,688,963,473,953,815,018,563,233,128,202,280,984,168,557,302,045,451,514,
098,025,859,347,390,439,076,058,918,375,892,950,703,352,687,236,643,245,081,
282,470,938,563,903,788,051,753,220,214,621,017,761,154,534,219,477,943,282,
771,708,164,383,363,942,150,445,814,460,815,273,018,859,224,049,434,778,463,
835,564,525,614,731,379,156,935,264,534,052,399,107,389,748,317,220,917,723,
962,187,042,585,637,902,676,099,779,681,343,315,586,041,988,654,576,797,590,
005,713,777,635,747,705,766,048,956,047,167,864,210,244,365,611,122,529,830,
187,277,258,068,103,824,913,666,385,901,198,916,611,173,662,251,645,959,804,
995,219,050,845,228,071,552,673,078,439,537,490,650,755,684,972,833,045,676,
193,672,558,210,066,774,476,131,851,891,393,648,190,501,139,776,531,536,810,
515,005,442,074,916,415,468,874,055,835,769,896,673,562,682,217,599,658,026,
991,924,624,441,652,350,908,785,301,948,627,693,734,467,992,778,137,887,844,
418,259,628,199,243,814,720,799,268,305,773,986,688,580,678,378,788,396,840,
506,637,125,723,442,834,562,808,913,921,468,834,672,194,550,581,480,470,866,
976,802,769,670,917,833,891,420,666,355,989,549,293,274,445,922,282,980,966,
757,946,143,453,996,245,344,251,567,096,725,883,299,323,244,172,602,737,239,
870,789,343,028,278,268,708,575,986,883,090,609,998,824,653,415,906,820,291,
573,388,953,754,375,759,087,922,687,948,606,607,755,581,853,829,585,311,702,
535,820,987,848,900,759,639,772,476,078,514,212,708,117,780,908,640,744,397,
057,580,907,683,989,541,620,562,196,551,875,902,368,717,453,133,782,329,596,
713,779,211,371,556,412,416,610,555,650,785,062,634,085,118,672,208,488,655,
147,743,406,157,729,923,150,158,390,249,202,696,746,329,681,647,740,899,734,
646,173,725,445,978,270,403,430,177,119,697,266,024,540,074,986,111,456,598,
238,572,170,495,974,076,889,943,809,623,971,112,960,493,513,344,390,202,181,
647,996,298,985,317,086,564,687,579,882,771,785,452,948,170,323,378,468,555,
454,973,229,500,301,429,827,026,978,668,014,786,309,970,560,025,780,805,972,
658,866,028,473,107,898,264,331,484,367,737,684,871,316,172,119,935,309,665,
901,532,295,565,911,998,796,748,977,682,150,922,965,823,378,100,567,223,289,
118,785,765,041,815,858,235,128,342,824,730,451,005,370,040,821,553,134,610,
259,143,034,466,531,370,479,229,075,789,197,225,114,699,710,399,735,369,890,
803,816,484,641,095,300,209,053,937,180,251,444,510,466,085,026,473,928,413,
349,140,845,751,190,224,484,462,062,291,833,120,232,242,119,827,413,671,527,
908,234,705,284,888,232,043,409,394,504,783,728,124,551,995,427,411,382,252,
398,344,638,404,161,387,902,290,179,640,195,259,493,820,427,439,930,436,949,
232,927,913,412,896,077,530,229,885,037,745,294,521,476,358,038,334,182,604,
126,998,658,614,415,992,797,224,390,651,531,982,694,721,302,911,841,754,380,
652,121,290,041,981,182,190,641,805,621,797,038,759,903,157,777,354,250,158,
550,478,140,622,451,354,393,422,822,228,576,476,061,565,487,646,550,051,732,
231,043,601,217,317,976,467,181,357,312,227,540,968,393,187,561,451,253,054,
789,431,744,109,734,388,447,074,377,997,628,391,442,589,712,472,842,282,496,
599,855,559,594,053,131,455,716,784,391,889,958,235,924,552,124,300,523,898,
607,969,317,745,545,631,160,431,353,766,417,164,227,418,766,893,320,532,256,
866,734,917,630,326,252,918,291,838,905,455,016,191,584,020,146,682,530,755,
163,011,902,032,819,311,309,960,095,804,246,873,510,424,584,264,096,394,699,
306,670,088,013,299,076,548,538,799,973,032,145,999,136,840,782,737,011,647,
657,200,888,292,792,583,275,393,644,507,756,794,465,510,998,538,320,702,787,
950,865,745,704,435,557,581,732,180,066,358,676,587,336,001,088,308,072,635,
841,068,793,487,992,957,731,712,602,027,373,353,956,185,468,182,032,224,148,
187,974,219,776,973,615,768,075,194,975,248,907,215,260,342,147,612,699,739,
640,393,935,436,190,556,969,120,878,158,357,207,895,100,853,613,987,110,133,
684,459,899,486,435,623,503,745,387,799,866,299,211,102,498,028,639,148,246,
432,225,992,647,405,793,335,082,423,709,256,861,876,941,610,775,317,675,133,
601,150,846,659,691,926,749,923,242,738,391,469,711,159,116,336,381,915,434,
424,593,014,185,114,830,017,352,541,943,311,618,935,141,791,223,901,422,259,
427,838,815,907,539,432,477,614,692,381,022,944,287,306,481,176,714,620,559,
009,987,830,221,259,930,624,711,672,848,003,254,859,888,710,758,406,079,962,
719,178,597,728,385,829,287,328,450,105,358,942,454,471,326,496,858,171,508,
760,959,037,213,633,731,926,200,466,920,495,722,994,212,284,028,000,190,751,
610,599,489,876,728,366,432,841,413,993,713,650,041,386,286,765,432,469,503,
718,837,950,951,571,618,882,635,770,007,155,160,313,424,849,952,286,962,952,
302,904,613,085,507,681,699,282,139,359,444,705,942,995,593,019,794,309,575,
508,960,795,147,337,061,359,050,565,541,865,101,793,073,038,144,874,012,765,
895,974,004,081,670,571,880,097,267,086,490,066,932,356,937,441,408,800,921,
761,738,915,793,270,737,169,601,644,359,173,050,007,391,399,659,705,319,944,
823,320,155,135,839,490,332,700,221,547,710,738,576,021,725,700,131,597,007,
211,117,915,549,173,435,084,366,029,939,187,723,140,956,398,380,080,427,798,
898,797,352,946,386,430,787,204,027,994,744,397,402,811,604,775,451,118,611,
474,910,269,713,051,908,084,167,669,775,944,986,011,822,680,218,291,951,261,
995,876,080,342,404,819,648,137,906,879,686,707,610,972,347,150,947,814,892,
260,373,597,006,195,059,478,367,088,616,245,054,986,544,969,060,283,562,691,
836,797,999,331,842,501,233,430,292,058,158,566,839,352,574,814,518,624,103,
868,713,810,439,750,115,467,493,230,228,612,128,575,796,307,856,946,987,822,
510,338,299,271,775,422,112,471,459,416,496,340,824,380,091,406,572,347,358,
127,670,883,626,316,161,870,987,168,837,437,685,071,525,250,057,715,566,983,
806,993,021,021,849,909,356,128,273,394,072,107,305,646,500,011,543,871,515,
388,589,185,188,274,160,422,952,303,793,732,183,481,970,154,108,997,599,287,
760,243,459,465,491,906,227,204,893,657,437,131,035,734,149,495,145,221,216,
328,677,575,132,194,333,446,506,345,667,176,631,215,597,620,974,834,695,637,
041,743,205,155,548,733,588,100,793,788,247,206,562,741,596,735,771,079,053,
326,488,979,348,054,445,699,333,806,531,340,854,298,532,422,890,121,033,686,
305,427,486,377,248,424,968,995,883,123,309,583,150,447,612,825,641,936,514,
136,488,908,778,662,766,665,824,162,614,285,103,851,772,757,696,117,639,944,
501,847,050,739,916,190,214,328,621,840,190,238,246,049,508,716,853,672,375,
722,757,539,768,184,851,565,580,349,105,881,928,023,221,584,608,563,306,808,
385,742,748,297,643,746,416,576,917,013,326,835,257,160,065,833,397,054,130,
274,017,870,411,302,466,098,844,864,093,835,645,252,585,026,807,153,455,939,
500,056,376,797,862,231,835,612,418,791,883,257,336,882,676,544,376,991,698,
892,130,054,280,747,742,764,052,613,525,727,171,592,256,114,277,216,950,416,
230,082,742,613,712,666,340,597,840,453,139,536,368,149,689,850,910,830,069,
213,431,355,758,086,557,065,006,361,770,564,081,111,164,406,953,318,424,427,
410,344,140,141,460,372,152,570,305,387,961,548,218,181,071,652,365,192,024,
389,178,544,283,337,290,644,090,110,283,717,189,809,141,306,059,691,254,328,
992,864,801,660,180,750,117,065,905,723,199,839,527,715,193,240,846,977,823,
544,000,075,351,368,449,911,457,369,486,365,806,585,041,421,809,662,307,727,
333,352,943,270,127,454,014,650,325,140,746,827,456,414,064,952,153,607,161,
802,846,013,128,422,257,793,801,728,856,210,698,051,081,608,034,556,943,203,
047,881,069,109,053,166,384,829,740,583,454,965,339,080,759,855,170,685,346,
856,480,458,987,088,597,471,636,271,804,061,065,678,921,986,595,548,413,991,
651,983,946,479,326,358,551,307,994,846,261,116,056,906,207,076,921,789,833,
793,641,085,769,938,066,992,097,138,660,245,522,369,376,362,224,530,810,707,
486,604,715,910,514,835,913,440,555,702,891,614,082,341,854,686,142,785,069,
296,533,109,321,661,225,583,724,367,822,116,167,355,882,981,412,380,358,232,
203,344,001,198,178,674,960,193,227,194,755,857,798,104,606,263,983,590,133,
102,347,320,015,993,729,308,169,918,831,021,669,177,474,017,210,922,549,809,
286,899,167,718,990,197,028,764,355,130,709,168,795,292,807,275,154,892,799,
928,244,718,867,246,314,359,846,113,067,759,657,209,021,825,749,265,213,618,
474,869,485,027,239,088,496,489,779,227,967,047,551,206,757,423,473,883,708,
398,795,322,689,888,647,500,008,070,075,773,397,018,123,204,976,257,629,745,
438,133,140,435,189,863,995,238,900,348,165,010,219,457,406,111,693,593,877,
160,314,340,342,503,291,950,314,803,953,383,900,933,766,805,117,123,870,849,
563,197,973,607,706,904,863,219,606,125,289,675,353,238,108,885,970,756,071,
955,719,063,645,320,389,823,277,627,450,941,118,299,149,736,138,057,789,438,
801,615,873,813,219,580,294,061,643,754,205,701,374,228,422,493,436,724,019,
602,375,986,540,846,029,626,807,601,650,697,014,732,075,281,502,733,749,492,
829,189,126,580,991,950,968,920,829,446,429,776,554,938,216,435,443,667,446,
122,303,572,380,834,008,875,806,340,387,258,562,089,875,690,132,134,331,844,
910,322,908,793,759,539,285,036,832,837,329,602,020,159,758,375,540,313,165,
102,621,792,857,184,862,098,566,269,622,648,235,974,494,388,899,955,132,715,
506,548,050,406,514,563,860,948,386,730,660,673,732,917,195,444,122,946,938,
666,126,451,981,442,676,509,468,600,035,335,830,106,854,615,934,206,381,258,
964,326,546,632,992,670,438,836,692,311,645,980,886,579,939,856,286,384,418,
158,270,062,548,942,913,120,553,573,604,058,011,673,221,575,559,744,067,473,
786,602,038,850,956,613,023,213,508,010,712,157,577,360,948,973,018,604,688,
450,618,991,663,239,437,817,965,294,994,048,608,042,694,240,987,149,006,834,
600,971,876,727,642,863,217,693,014,151,675,544,809,258,104,365,525,453,763,
570,094,549,910,041,525,044,381,930,998,851,004,347,271,426,922,795,095,018,
746,532,529,426,694,858,747,324,226,586,896,367,368,454,510,276,829,527,700,
894,763,084,602,086,670,507,305,016,587,563,210,647,156,683,642,216,763,749,
725,214,855,616,926,217,755,354,729,722,628,921,211,227,356,488,692,447,147,
114,118,683,338,122,905,327,242,007,737,947,886,307,968,922,188,310,926,100,
073,553,389,362,887,211,136,940,985,148,907,175,639,648,535,268,601,906,904,
436,440,829,058,007,283,841,598,871,951,769,800,017,561,623,140,578,817,319,
387,968,271,309,600,971,313,614,204,008,888,997,905,484,661,557,968,388,774,
162,337,359,120,890,682,582,551,196,882,082,609,682,649,560,862,041,743,676,
347,162,480,819,627,616,148,737,659,396,928,054,539,800,570,795,324,360,373,
126,697,059,079,847,681,963,709,140,179,399,715,093,941,981,297,320,544,181,
702,000,604,656,831,768,094,383,342,026,265,342,355,112,248,052,813,792,877,
679,448,920,633,195,607,207,963,302,654,961,442,325,652,308,384,793,884,759,
082,143,251,167,653,201,646,246,643,637,143,862,312,828,400,666,681,979,213,
848,005,965,292,589,906,793,098,783,883,551,113,058,842,301,140,585,958,002,
320,204,217,922,778,391,891,207,080,626,233,962,106,893,946,358,585,168,117,
675,317,289,380,934,126,349,504,615,308,452,475,980,002,444,815,584,766,117,
088,314,522,552,264,788,917,355,046,642,446,034,005,982,911,164,852,865,260,
130,758,721,567,195,663,065,061,892,861,998,840,280,452,035,967,538,328,514,
547,198,462,642,647,107,464,185,469,981,703,940,773,278,555,290,966,031,304,
945,320,116,490,166,188,526,741,221,755,819,700,815,668,331,357,646,358,653,
342,391,375,567,525,955,659,676,319,717,963,687,335,641,290,620,104,348,571,
872,207,365,407,845,623,105,045,972,052,990,918,978,887,058,535,838,041,196,
115,104,315,915,915,195,706,888,527,789,998,582,871,600,790,742,661,656,398,
056,712,409,624,169,047,960,506,988,653,384,330,924,477,755,197,856,564,796,
555,800,631,824,829,684,751,937,205,975,481,744,201,715,219,072,954,876,403,
580,459,288,543,840,836,121,093,346,033,950,474,739,603,268,899,591,460,360,
358,978,555,598,527,025,766,909,458,633,822,943,206,403,572,439,684,659,265,
234,327,367,979,568,792,867,116,515,445,746,634,935,861,794,700,811,693,393,
539,219,427,233,775,225,002,041,203,728,954,053,066,389,335,510,524,480,643,
511,356,365,779,713,861,263,281,034,983,206,492,765,939,840,956,387,846,384,
828,606,382,400,961,985,772,657,057,528,419,637,494,535,124,501,629,492,220,
657,374,181,071,548,528,752,623,113,826,029,232,854,341,389,273,772,333,319,
324,917,938,530,732,756,647,048,463,899,619,461,947,350,750,615,334,425,264,
414,973,770,726,745,660,296,789,157,598,990,895,218,245,078,905,144,209,608,
158,294,083,153,020,269,873,478,289,243,378,270,016,506,323,189,355,099,352,
165,726,255,120,210,967,458,098,692,281,676,680,845,667,259,403,539,975,857,
666,392,587,556,580,540,633,943,645,052,742,802,964,773,043,400,364,057,874,
697,235,587,183,178,682,571,096,440,248,304,986,510,725,580,349,657,520,465,
293,619,901,953,866,394,544,015,885,860,283,067,567,133,877,840,981,225,786,
204,403,320,196,385,903,895,277,967,094,807,553,513,005,747,133,125,296,061,
202,114,811,182,021,802,692,708,123,145,551,565,614,037,048,488,863,907,368,
155,791,360,686,228,406,915,673,919,152,126,431,251,891,728,550,603,420,418,
822,621,002,802,382,001,181,068,136,211,287,973,016,133,579,100,374,511,377,
754,112,183,979,439,460,117,010,625,462,731,791,365,710,608,707,233,364,409,
558,878,258,559,560,271,989,274,759,245,667,018,966,444,799,843,933,411,838,
359,271,896,265,324,881,705,107,022,673,193,100,246,756,729,502,107,378,219,
671,573,396,006,717,290,327,248,961,844,134,358,992,677,946,471,401,260,413,
751,480,310,381,424,925,275,214,567,958,294,630,811,315,585,631,585,510,012,
730,450,881,793,826,682,820,765,394,336,932,233,653,373,828,686,133,168,214,
759,008,463,787,036,514,959,198,108,600,947,279,806,034,341,610,753,507,674,
802,670,725,790,641,716,537,440,251,821,873,198,169,281,896,088,926,526,028,
742,749,940,505,645,770,773,753,362,873,956,929,810,082,732,218,354,544,200,
805,458,102,033,021,046,914,281,690,642,704,923,706,092,723,028,966,609,631,
506,023,252,375,439,255,456,288,252,117,541,321,471,507,562,876,105,154,285,
080,355,527,148,289,452,130,955,525,158,164,424,082,028,101,790,693,796,729,
301,830,143,804,148,626,460,826,561,494,718,059,331,073,043,181,693,231,033,
610,044,855,674,330,355,805,026,052,725,055,920,874,727,148,060,338,623,069,
741,293,943,298,256,990,503,220,686,771,738,366,912,806,459,427,212,127,384,
664,995,994,019,293,953,930,788,786,178,545,674,814,809,294,962,848,711,978,
633,164,198,912,777,299,190,547,831,468,951,276,579,704,066,408,950,915,400,
824,842,697,890,175,604,992,063,337,994,107,458,920,144,080,557,304,990,379,
219,391,918,486,597,529,997,707,933,850,546,138,180,568,384,080,200,684,556,
356,993,560,235,668,817,638,583,666,024,759,384,802,695,277,050,036,320,431,
673,107,398,871,251,171,577,396,682,141,242,768,269,823,140,256,115,508,880,
691,498,163,457,084,801,604,098,724,265,897,940,276,501,224,436,106,029,903,
402,312,708,187,676,029,323,022,239,824,025,092,817,664,586,906,926,485,980,
851,856,898,518,129,581,404,708,939,735,178,732,633,894,732,624,611,879,072,
906,974,539,801,649,300,044,955,107,508,098,181,900,045,149,142,311,352,439,
798,244,276,931,544,059,064,333,985,786,237,067,602,587,927,333,115,887,774,
081,435,129,867,915,326,819,023,230,458,906,075,384,635,596,318,973,567,605,
463,150,190,079,273,843,289,684,118,858,556,037,112,546,972,758,239,375,813,
849,739,149,421,461,118,491,687,971,653,633,051,930,669,362,771,000,783,987,
166,058,623,159,052,423,441,849,732,062,023,986,844,391,600,713,820,348,035,
590,820,190,870,669,749,587,118,005,514,010,633,050,224,555,292,880,722,764,
224,389,633,339,168,109,749,548,065,272,413,153,392,133,516,012,504,126,961,
520,487,664,067,372,531,532,766,914,432,502,141,896,463,595,345,991,517,932,
258,905,809,592,044,262,980,676,124,517,747,680,825,218,707,595,288,624,667,
114,506,705,017,553,252,613,954,594,422,750,063,258,665,272,399,010,780,930,
581,742,731,180,230,303,457,146,132,846,157,049,174,709,338,950,532,721,507,
730,383,905,854,210,117,538,711,849,328,951,748,295,866,047,496,785,983,411,
644,185,352,883,548,074,539,342,728,948,153,620,321,461,328,607,665,747,678,
058,813,011,433,711,582,209,368,981,230,794,434,220,074,268,607,662,117,174,
168,339,017,936,278,695,570,560,772,202,420,820,270,939,079,159,474,627,940,
350,296,914,741,248,028,272,201,571,834,695,762,959,632,772,067,424,745,696,
242,592,018,843,404,897,154,782,747,460,396,763,999,200,173,057,476,972,239,
971,745,935,224,807,536,090,656,350,156,484,146,190,760,102,300,669,961,465,
720,776,262,096,733,126,404,794,234,629,555,840,697,756,095,532,019,076,073,
984,599,569,723,866,266,216,985,519,262,039,857,550,536,981,689,337,777,763,
139,434,492,073,739,933,219,594,931,123,873,145,357,436,286,605,569,997,025,
677,933,266,748,155,177,527,498,611,247,861,224,791,236,201,541,466,423,658,
853,840,170,229,304,252,551,041,261,898,915,687,504,234,943,082,125,689,802,
109,298,098,422,338,637,450,707,308,246,238,547,575,408,993,705,952,345,389,
511,696,281,558,829,575,098,584,334,914,061,206,871,103,300,620,824,741,482,
996,863,817,471,523,088,441,528,456,118,083,718,072,284,972,992,580,633,805,
779,583,718,894,675,341,461,828,083,442,099,384,570,882,012,994,900,700,651,
994,240,722,296,022,097,485,865,075,021,157,872,052,697,914,727,351,829,909,
629,830,573,732,117,236,353,934,093,600,919,199,212,363,000,454,202,747,629,
226,211,262,513,548,142,896,303,220,055,286,175,796,328,640,390,695,017,100,
292,379,755,053,635,251,574,742,869,449,632,188,334,377,704,089,061,424,621,
732,942,228,119,408,764,395,455,351,692,021,181,462,696,912,861,155,028,148,
673,525,261,822,956,306,039,849,479,255,751,124,086,613,447,907,279,189,108,
206,447,370,905,796,098,627,213,778,607,050,571,284,416,539,210,210,136,479,
323,870,287,538,359,489,767,507,304,417,189,349,050,145,360,616,647,134,157,
763,876,215,569,234,970,198,187,442,796,422,152,279,591,551,545,003,025,472,
718,989,681,022,472,833,409,388,131,116,952,573,376,140,331,474,485,809,446,
658,490,429,378,562,397,613,028,703,937,942,296,701,460,133,659,138,796,188,
682,641,865,294,137,760,753,206,622,874,122,366,777,428,849,338,209,915,117,
659,776,003,404,889,454,991,493,772,124,976,920,074,427,061,127,920,873,156,
525,797,475,431,340,917,946,047,203,382,625,717,139,323,358,437,834,083,053,
178,611,638,692,459,899,247,845,870,703,110,845,430,641,930,968,707,655,107,
535,599,992,770,323,868,313,026,620,440,463,991,542,402,854,153,124,351,608,
973,909,148,655,543,318,773,765,808,990,711,489,993,823,658,747,308,292,435,
497,266,219,120,320,537,490,746,323,294,139,203,401,144,420,915,527,544,961,
163,184,200,011,688,461,943,598,942,809,528,010,433,518,391,682,499,362,611,
009,070,719,074,444,546,884,952,386,706,495,166,265,426,810,077,384,119,572,
142,737,013,670,181,688,227,631,651,268,847,910,110,027,594,360,263,796,302,
118,678,944,440,930,868,499,771,944,818,604,720,697,414,184,352,292,875,032,
316,817,359,209,496,671,786,808,297,855,407,125,447,075,903,151,638,257,069,
956,630,298,086,267,751,764,955,483,038,308,044,166,275,701,170,036,735,768,
572,567,719,207,964,772,834,224,545,044,972,350,894,648,155,887,838,448,419,
331,731,190,434,351,733,636,234,172,116,946,423,136,988,993,648,417,944,578,
030,831,938,948,721,343,313,037,054,126,564,900,675,363,079,731,943,532,033,
245,942,181,203,960,853,408,284,809,092,630,520,740,724,321,607,775,887,713,
001,423,026,851,705,500,458,169,365,369,642,845,177,624,487,869,288,952,001,
764,911,005,005,737,511,051,433,241,938,404,667,169,214,122,751,022,327,951,
246,422,985,081,790,284,327,716,059,891,907,909,512,379,657,622,799,626,816,
574,021,401,348,002,754,244,981,900,237,598,506,469,991,269,354,345,293,308,
346,312,779,442,404,732,961,037,135,236,870,771,883,563,613,556,254,299,905,
328,910,471,459,552,198,363,636,654,235,008,066,887,705,351,119,568,226,802,
190,853,759,076,666,506,079,645,385,011,573,186,633,037,606,941,854,157,939,
262,437,804,970,884,802,683,784,190,808,360,886,479,186,348,379,389,892,155,
400,610,659,969,844,572,888,872,567,174,753,444,363,634,040,846,731,032,989,
752,557,217,103,548,883,830,302,135,942,112,865,570,067,881,183,348,927,808,
678,548,700,601,054,086,749,252,214,883,795,863,939,899,209,472,702,533,868,
544,857,014,705,674,893,932,843,371,468,884,725,628,834,663,726,428,657,789,
535,809,785,184,593,930,867,049,837,667,564,427,772,505,089,827,749,029,700,
107,095,354,100,646,416,249,923,588,567,830,290,525,927,570,180,838,506,647,
803,987,770,721,553,148,449,073,730,463,152,546,276,823,936,042,880,473,369,
459,153,311,368,107,791,787,656,580,039,666,566,452,186,211,898,425,011,541,
357,663,276,957,580,907,464,328,667,338,729,608,042,956,061,813,650,505,622,
912,605,461,239,629,756,259,662,441,951,919,279,233,274,670,171,216,984,524,
344,601,396,937,289,160,318,997,763,274,962,300,819,968,033,504,107,396,205,
800,553,462,116,146,510,176,250,416,826,699,377,058,115,710,350,859,415,885,
623,245,034,611,000,287,783,849,758,178,421,476,442,115,817,060,963,415,606,
722,581,089,259,831,315,431,264,049,806,346,339,743,965,329,111,093,290,513,
621,560,743,354,285,861,616,915,972,856,298,400,586,508,130,229,288,838,842,
723,956,727,150,404,603,519,915,967,334,842,012,663,312,646,417,209,586,931,
207,544,143,040,017,803,650,054,775,188,772,591,843,326,008,849,159,574,965,
753,461,182,557,783,116,266,448,136,033,469,890,564,045,961,721,824,740,381,
418,547,002,729,588,360,728,104,245,034,400,695,976,457,924,408,400,001,158,
219,354,527,464,521,527,206,764,133,196,037,441,403,921,278,832,624,601,461,
112,267,125,309,159,931,776,234,572,979,482,114,338,985,819,564,574,429,305,
381,453,290,167,988,885,750,920,484,971,056,850,434,139,692,244,745,590,821,
544,515,378,070,148,835,486,352,052,114,656,125,596,770,851,717,365,127,822,
318,261,668,377,180,426,030,779,171,150,083,972,118,179,380,130,994,461,635,
807,463,668,956,385,929,007,088,166,329,310,684,388,814,278,225,967,478,540,
306,537,123,809,859,500,796,391,130,215,327,960,890,891,558,168,371,664,713,
547,558,350,064,552,789,796,874,564,695,144,920,578,995,493,137,502,980,473,
909,467,243,887,442,611,132,247,938,853,686,048,160,727,977,690,671,132,917,
286,824,877,746,713,309,966,009,823,891,246,163,424,809,223,845,424,841,763,
923,355,524,521,191,928,278,429,608,370,213,407,980,729,637,177,178,369,601,
852,186,139,885,235,217,412,059,166,026,596,190,486,033,925,878,317,771,593,
472,590,650,822,303,213,414,772,870,177,705,984,509,102,220,973,349,834,001,
384,426,686,135,009,682,324,917,071,975,642,465,820,709,473,526,917,956,595,
982,554,553,267,108,280,096,299,628,956,996,192,108,146,272,759,400,505,646,
929,000,743,922,043,490,355,778,948,726,289,561,205,839,963,580,847,736,489,
090,850,887,742,828,490,075,042,661,565,305,180,104,163,564,976,628,769,873,
551,385,385,884,943,379,991,519,592,690,961,047,183,225,493,042,110,143,864,
560,780,489,778,907,145,299,804,692,105,384,034,373,548,858,828,997,143,565,
504,902,290,729,247,935,832,983,124,432,348,474,935,174,954,809,372,486,748,
024,991,288,149,314,886,915,439,184,678,435,716,810,621,012,223,962,465,471,
062,201,735,666,803,637,339,844,618,103,072,964,813,898,402,971,368,058,921,
490,309,439,612,464,119,158,935,167,919,298,761,155,899,018,910,992,412,904,
198,769,344,818,262,834,555,816,882,815,428,623,158,360,993,283,676,237,940,
137,510,498,386,097,144,443,575,894,880,325,984,989,602,490,300,949,101,722,
286,684,277,176,448,655,218,962,891,101,463,381,473,269,931,688,155,327,750,
771,485,018,970,333,522,997,254,896,570,882,927,943,668,929,863,140,819,541,
118,634,592,137,048,161,802,871,355,200,982,835,047,780,663,038,122,016,063,
593,041,132,089,197,122,283,226,183,128,238,255,369,509,079,847,301,190,466,
459,977,277,767,468,958,394,211,977,507,761,670,595,850,176,987,682,312,331,
993,944,042,601,921,304,285,845,068,244,436,474,582,089,863,974,200,639,852,
256,510,985,719,351,764,767,834,242,251,278,317,215,738,581,517,293,395,290,
118,078,469,503,847,952,233,153,054,518,298,109,190,574,521,437,889,171,913,
381,138,083,832,047,325,947,821,461,208,756,251,104,824,288,549,148,536,663,
254,924,807,884,600,027,250,768,514,005,435,284,372,096,831,678,814,734,633,
674,405,473,643,965,922,899,495,093,564,671,966,549,590,084,491,520,039,432,
927,940,090,850,724,606,722,165,854,478,905,974,376,064,341,042,740,354,095,
485,833,535,070,467,727,823,697,345,845,984,182,516,403,677,394,736,230,730,
120,198,006,424,340,791,374,713,897,973,705,318,245,703,921,648,822,843,246,
551,222,503,602,575,846,803,140,959,991,599,795,013,789,395,136,968,803,402,
791,902,190,836,957,722,371,516,235,298,116,828,993,351,588,249,181,636,895,
617,220,416,408,329,089,887,122,096,651,528,395,077,024,749,587,210,045,140,
473,823,085,195,392,919,871,858,890,308,628,862,473,856,517,011,710,077,103,
831,628,571,862,501,843,405,853,078,050,022,001,798,413,660,541,940,906,022,
810,908,619,981,962,969,220,131,817,538,538,459,364,450,349,651,870,362,815,
323,380,487,973,898,860,505,277,007,077,382,111,101,654,026,745,715,544,225,
102,755,466,782,354,183,823,105,570,339,334,706,701,662,744,085,487,261,699,
963,434,905,517,661,438,288,185,620,642,152,155,604,891,926,968,981,594,702,
179,901,971,130,277,668,383,972,279,329,565,695,545,555,459,894,351,080,341,
571,395,152,968,684,104,136,478,997,601,405,980,712,829,107,098,261,108,846,
711,871,289,678,973,244,215,239,378,360,360,028,811,120,390,740,423,415,502,
625,054,676,577,416,789,626,349,787,778,079,252,659,824,740,421,576,211,385,
862,462,477,828,042,292,050,203,945,698,759,939,720,788,579,549,286,046,258,
564,324,960,019,763,580,949,741,599,550,306,995,694,564,304,239,815,475,986,
562,440,691,863,372,008,222,591,499,394,204,390,292,288,188,085,137,558,644,
011,446,684,322,904,395,924,941,761,938,457,580,849,532,062,256,847,940,999,
756,296,742,957,456,574,275,604,145,061,028,094,367,704,701,905,739,719,904,
296,103,925,267,995,764,397,834,642,065,909,450,309,320,915,767,728,694,463,
217,833,809,369,679,130,103,979,917,841,532,921,256,153,527,522,430,739,593,
987,022,981,971,342,533,337,635,877,709,833,317,302,649,962,400,219,833,904,
009,853,194,700,858,904,326,776,981,262,392,457,790,375,314,420,107,703,969,
973,421,417,494,974,835,547,745,568,592,013,609,976,739,162,581,150,136,125,
684,678,655,851,023,214,739,505,143,843,756,770,955,035,968,683,975,803,020,
435,278,224,695,079,339,823,623,392,824,459,891,678,831,769,497,237,710,572,
041,182,046,697,476,910,041,679,098,480,085,674,462,342,940,391,300,728,147,
597,132,452,266,456,066,761,635,430,639,321,503,494,491,981,573,236,310,143,
698,881,878,873,442,212,652,748,447,779,883,255,777,153,233,432,496,542,717,
898,806,391,507,602,669,569,687,520,054,231,063,023,083,067,611,030,647,954,
113,074,544,307,777,936,200,527,974,484,374,392,140,892,757,479,684,210,010,
912,211,473,575,835,168,148,830,301,881,697,254,523,029,148,536,109,516,782,
064,769,502,922,661,798,393,238,555,105,683,400,441,294,583,754,589,214,652,
103,528,631,278,730,887,820,902,899,709,668,722,417,608,442,618,722,120,774,
728,336,460,428,932,365,025,168,080,511,160,598,143,181,160,927,637,067,220,
934,667,673,553,056,064,366,673,344,720,620,966,691,860,907,262,599,768,539,
252,877,840,848,671,019,812,602,762,343,259,784,922,153,240,250,653,282,922,
685,980,584,219,506,925,061,990,975,681,213,068,365,481,871,723,163,145,283,
397,740,266,776,569,320,880,699,371,703,385,332,158,394,333,940,214,674,039,
277,780,519,329,602,571,060,531,363,182,299,350,183,275,999,986,860,461,243,
063,418,212,241,632,160,965,532,251,316,972,060,853,999,805,809,281,994,731,
415,075,060,331,827,573,369,773,978,564,701,616,990,608,446,940,568,966,889,
243,151,533,431,539,177,374,216,208,553,848,967,623,189,510,874,603,928,814,
259,502,748,067,445,029,979,507,017,602,987,428,350,275,471,689,040,129,019,
627,696,139,234,813,642,860,348,959,185,773,128,873,428,714,959,905,456,403,
820,142,414,055,222,290,572,423,638,033,485,499,050,085,363,416,765,805,412,
607,906,660,948,202,608,800,301,999,410,873,759,459,792,636,275,196,804,846,
806,599,255,982,285,974,542,577,401,010,879,032,606,880,163,621,708,920,602,
884,997,610,204,125,559,659,894,512,560,953,948,042,869,009,552,030,978,404,
650,129,171,356,899,054,263,131,269,851,460,124,836,991,457,415,735,186,296,
986,041,194,577,515,702,140,842,544,833,475,181,060,231,442,773,043,788,561,
562,271,636,649,958,242,971,431,341,718,280,331,965,631,363,481,066,974,819,
220,940,268,180,108,285,160,832,577,877,867,472,808,569,928,456,233,162,062,
677,321,222,866,076,380,695,701,306,952,427,128,932,720,022,050,643,944,425,
719,193,413,868,536,412,515,009,048,386,223,072,337,307,412,369,317,793,972,
653,087,053,817,074,826,368,595,009,243,324,228,922,134,282,750,412,959,760,
308,058,678,082,671,976,669,091,605,917,108,557,402,533,190,203,343,169,955,
383,247,338,287,373,835,967,885,648,542,134,373,713,959,573,258,314,745,788,
330,997,473,576,678,389,077,894,882,772,004,384,556,949,871,363,846,882,415,
658,360,674,475,897,457,828,012,916,636,334,688,515,255,541,722,870,451,152,
586,484,849,928,085,364,587,535,006,790,032,879,468,766,968,546,329,018,681,
988,691,955,382,814,962,191,957,682,385,074,607,837,846,528,902,841,792,316,
908,277,854,741,022,093,177,224,804,006,494,974,169,055,119,576,276,769,406,
602,188,907,331,925,745,235,614,223,344,870,969,855,548,164,283,420,902,612,
776,574,520,848,285,249,039,145,726,717,343,124,064,188,888,210,752,714,869,
289,301,000,762,617,566,038,222,560,131,326,368,874,713,825,813,740,793,415,
066,256,467,539,968,825,565,493,175,916,237,620,087,707,295,645,784,340,760,
402,157,683,606,569,215,223,047,792,041,352,194,782,848,210,472,599,768,691,
089,988,463,056,435,326,791,508,775,235,598,431,688,332,661,312,833,175,067,
721,293,505,273,093,872,707,203,392,326,953,366,943,765,627,911,902,812,836,
479,905,563,681,158,843,622,677,701,168,470,851,330,464,767,702,823,477,220,
972,578,048,975,012,840,729,693,368,021,220,938,198,212,197,854,467,947,606,
164,958,319,337,271,779,470,291,835,870,843,005,831,723,559,357,892,056,391,
064,396,275,529,394,619,559,038,356,060,878,508,879,699,396,819,210,545,043,
070,911,919,085,901,748,607,666,094,521,090,876,573,601,334,082,725,264,896,
082,245,897,735,264,781,248,898,450,913,756,231,649,315,068,990,064,506,351,
034,984,308,245,942,019,629,997,091,101,283,106,483,669,936,210,997,189,384,
071,811,866,892,697,481,544,129,484,276,807,983,748,023,269,822,507,500,502,
256,558,605,123,231,529,389,565,164,955,452,460,990,530,479,438,724,801,657,
860,874,598,697,834,189,991,031,706,473,529,729,247,978,486,006,279,609,348,
905,304,722,303,241,864,150,178,128,207,690,735,431,555,841,639,536,570,364,
592,068,609,222,085,550,855,804,357,159,395,012,987,321,194,572,782,287,747,
214,558,347,385,634,080,980,451,016,674,113,371,379,812,398,977,743,757,285,
530,305,860,727,452,370,630,509,948,103,057,606,136,656,482,488,603,336,701,
328,018,966,694,283,214,469,998,569,096,051,463,982,923,667,553,117,314,734,
211,405,917,844,507,572,113,178,131,988,478,355,486,497,583,223,190,745,542,
628,484,861,307,908,433,324,102,395,544,462,765,576,695,753,382,657,060,109,
684,388,168,533,854,843,123,532,916,493,949,034,155,551,677,833,850,158,236,
514,152,254,231,863,754,982,662,444,409,808,829,498,994,182,604,188,406,999,
278,708,777,308,068,451,599,127,473,163,430,161,908,430,844,949,344,982,234,
650,104,632,462,325,937,497,602,990,738,942,741,286,686,070,820,840,548,053,
506,540,171,059,384,312,484,580,917,154,953,005,791,231,115,622,362,084,050,
027,871,767,502,291,120,255,511,244,823,489,873,907,257,034,428,973,839,366,
017,742,208,945,864,573,428,759,903,820,145,742,758,012,853,018,494,026,897,
772,047,628,029,576,610,745,074,745,952,354,612,605,330,736,606,068,308,136,
989,028,916,302,785,248,644,505,847,087,332,346,917,714,959,523,977,991,026,
965,389,696,016,649,425,230,489,789,492,762,503,600,391,795,734,146,395,657,
570,883,119,168,159,085,594,882,185,103,559,650,094,357,375,435,895,600,569,
912,753,723,726,788,607,584,528,787,599,533,733,320,544,654,874,118,020,699,
528,582,090,778,402,272,110,381,619,547,102,754,712,481,739,335,383,322,543,
372,212,354,258,932,557,914,960,695,881,262,005,280,004,648,997,375,393,749,
696,228,415,149,386,182,687,221,683,383,343,209,925,915,204,993,964,262,910,
036,605,937,014,097,444,618,151,977,818,958,898,647,908,946,939,651,817,174,
012,068,666,961,943,388,185,129,162,470,637,404,257,970,502,847,854,135,225,
572,794,958,947,911,158,716,562,577,443,070,262,059,523,073,743,762,096,654,
319,399,642,264,752,530,867,234,620,203,170,488,627,305,412,588,443,026,036,
026,063,257,769,868,204,384,295,693,510,347,027,855,901,781,477,166,577,959,
058,790,387,692,172,277,188,231,994,125,770,974,490,388,398,785,326,225,913,
964,134,982,043,700,815,183,454,226,573,711,808,270,509,952,995,146,304,460,
446,653,486,541,488,554,915,001,004,069,010,993,070,316,659,690,874,639,503,
986,678,637,053,903,714,976,947,122,308,423,231,212,024,533,432,412,834,408,
124,923,550,895,122,969,460,509,023,003,374,826,662,750,699,491,224,356,244,
524,729,603,078,144,465,758,271,288,304,432,686,017,537,606,032,976,431,307,
211,850,708,947,254,130,783,687,660,383,444,486,397,721,495,782,031,679,977,
411,565,556,602,637,191,977,338,996,093,380,256,007,239,191,321,437,760,222,
890,768,195,903,217,013,139,093,662,855,578,322,852,915,441,187,402,103,433,
397,948,432,487,855,398,833,009,401,724,765,419,165,472,827,998,786,320,429,
102,945,424,906,196,584,785,499,513,217,711,273,013,288,607,348,012,368,268,
493,279,260,403,717,058,658,594,894,184,249,773,083,050,086,907,542,750,133,
834,325,374,971,854,459,957,071,292,324,415,418,615,247,764,010,289,010,968,
218,504,079,233,099,853,896,500,493,695,766,781,105,016,035,501,363,245,886,
524,315,224,394,046,975,356,744,436,046,151,396,433,184,206,484,240,783,585,
709,902,306,172,138,491,398,542,760,432,741,212,755,677,381,153,053,892,561,
883,906,376,602,193,683,236,736,730,822,711,678,956,149,432,532,644,153,240,
796,400,485,109,329,883,378,631,644,703,566,339,852,138,578,455,730,061,311.
It just depends how you catch me.

Q. In NRO's The Corner, you claimed that Arthur C. Clarke sent you fan mail over Prime Obsession. I don't want to call you a liar, so I'll check my thesaurus... fabricator! Your response?

A. That's **SIR** Arthur C. Clarke to you, Bubba: http://www.olimu.com/Riemann/Reviews/Clarke.htm

Q. Do you think the number 2, being the only even prime, is a bit arrogant? I never liked it.

A. Know what you mean. I've had a couple of run-ins with it myself. It was Papa Doc Duvalier's favorite number, though, and you better not argue with voodoo.

Q. Here's a question I always have for people knowledgeable at math: why does the square root of negative one get to be a number, but my math teacher always yelled at me if I tried to divide one by zero?

A. Beats my pair of jacks. Most likely your teacher had issues. Was he gay?

Q. Combining your knowledge of math and politics, which of the two major parties is more like an integral and which is more like a differential? (show all your work for full credit)

A. They are BOTH like integrals: but the Dem party is a Riemann-Stieltjes, while the GOP is more of a Lebesgue.

Q. You wrote a novel, Seeing Calvin Coolidge in a Dream, about Chinese immigrants in the U.S. What inspired you to write that novel?

A. Hanging around with Chinese immigrants in the U.S.

Q. Have you thought about converting to Chinese?

A. No.

Q. With your knowledge about China, how much longer do you expect the Communist government to last? When (or if) China becomes a democracy, do you think they might be able to become richer and more powerful than American, because that scares me.

A. Rest assured, they will never come up with anything half as good as the Twinkie.

Q. With your three volume novel, Fire from the Sun, you went with P.O.D. (post-orgasmic depression) to get your novel available to the public. How has that worked out?

A. All right. Twice a year I get a check from the POD people. It's a nice surprise. And God knows I need the money.

Q. In closing, do you have a message for our nation's youth?

A. Yes. I hate you all for having much more fun than I had, and for all your damn straight, white, perfect teeth.

Rating: 2.6/5 (41 votes cast)

Frank Discussions
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